If a construct has been identified by previous researchers, then describe the criteria they used to validate the construct. Refer to yourself or the research team in third person. The statement of the problem is the focal point of your research. Recommendations fall into two categories. If you are planning to explore a relatively new area, the literature review should cite similar areas of study or studies that lead up to the current research.

Avoid the use of trivial tables or graphs. State exactly when the research will begin and when it will end. One method of establishing face validity is described here. Spacing and justification All pages are single sided. If you’ve developed your own survey, then you must describe the steps you took to assess its validity and a description of how you will measure its reliability.

Expert opinions, literature searches, and pretest open-ended questions help to establish content validity. Include a copy of the actual survey in the appendix and state that a copy of the survey is in the appendix. A paper that looks like a draft, will interpreted as such, and you can expect extensive and liberal modifications.

Use specific names, places, times, etc.

Include it if your paper uses special terms that are unique to your field of inquiry or that might not be understood by the general reader. All research studies also have limitations and a finite scope.


Don’t omit any details.

Research Library

The same rules apply to writing a proposal, a thesis, a dissertation, or any business research report. It uses dramatic illustrations or quotes to set the tone.

All research reports use roughly the same format. The statement of the problem is the focal point of your research.

Do your findings support existing theories? Describe any special procedures that will be followed e. The most obvious is that the sample represents the population. Generally, the same font must be used throughout the manuscript, except 1 tables and graphs may use a different font, and 2 chapter titles and section headings may use a different font.

The first line of each reference is indented. A complete bibliography is attached at the end of the paper.

Content validity refers to whether an instrument provides adequate coverage of a topic. If you use tables or graphs, refer to them in the text and explain what they say.

Chapter I lists the research questions although it is equally acceptable elements of a research proposal and report walonick present the hypotheses or null hypotheses.

The analyses section is cut and dry. Most research studies begin with a written proposal. The whole idea of inferential research using a sample to represent the entire population depends upon an accurate description of the population.

Explain how the problem relates to business, social or political trends by presenting data that demonstrates the scope and depth of the problem. It precisely follows the analysis plan laid out in Chapter III. Thus, the research questions should be addressed one at a time followed by a description of the type of statistical tests that will be performed to answer that research question. Chapter II should also contain a definition of terms section when appropriate.


There are three basic methods to test reliability: Avoid the temptation to present recommendations based on your own beliefs or biases that are not specifically supported by your data. State exactly when the research will begin and when it will end. Jones found that An example of an operational definition is: Most research uses some form of internal consistency.

How to Write a Research Paper

Include the opinions of others politicians, futurists, other professionals. When a measurement is prone to random error, it lacks reliability. All tables and figures have a number and a descriptive heading.

Face validity refers to the likelihood that a question will be misunderstood or misinterpreted. Another common assumptions are that an instrument has validity and is measuring the desired constructs.

Is there a significant relationship between