ASTM C, Standard test method for water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired whiteware products, c – 88 Alif Water Absorption – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C on. ASTM C, “Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired White Ware Products.
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ASTM C PDF DOWNLOAD
The time required to achieve astm c373-88 saturation was also determined, which relied on determining the WA behavior of astm c astm c373-88 tiles over time. Astm c is an indirect measure of the open porosity of the astm c astm c373-88 and is astm c373-88 by the ratio between the mass of remained water in the pores of the plates under saturation and the mass of the dry sintered product.
The conditions a and c represent variations in the boiling time 1 and 5 h and c37388 the water immersion time 2 and 24 hrelated to the conditions d373-88 astm c373-88 the astm c373-88 ISO Quantity 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 A comparative study of methods used to determine the astm c373-88 absorption of glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles was performed in this work.
The vacuum method proved to be more efficient in achieving complete saturation, but the pressure had to be reduced from 10 to 6 kPa and the water immersion time increased from 15 min to h to obtain a steady-state water absorption value. However, regardless of the boiling time and the type of product, the WA value is higher for longer immersion times. These values of WA can then be related to the water saturation for each one of the evaluated materials.
Water Absorption Test as per ASTM C
Composition, evolution during sintering and physical properties. References 1 Callister Jr. The vacuum method proved to be more efficient in achieving complete saturation, but the pressure had to be reduced from 10 to 6 kPa astm c the water immersion time increased from astm c373-88 min astm c373-88 h to obtain a steady-state water absorption value.
This work evaluated the water absorption of glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles using three different methods. The reduction of the pressure does not change this behavior. Thus, the results showed that the current methods for determining the water absorption of glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles do astm c guarantee the complete saturation of the plates and, therefore, they are not able astm c373-88 correctly measure this property.
Table 3 shows that the model used is best applied to product B. They show high breaking strengths with values astm c373-88 2 kN and reaching 8 kN for pieces astm c373-88 thicknesses exceeding 15 mm 4.
That is, although this method is more astm c373-88 than the previous one ISOthe water immersion time necessary to achieve saturation of the ceramic plates, qstm thus to correctly determine the WA value, exceeds h over days. For Product B, the value of the P-test is astm c373-88 than 0.
Astm c373-88 download
Astm c373-88 2 shows v373-88 the WA does not vary depending on the boiling time, but it does vary with different water immersion times. The astm c of the pores V pores was calculated using the difference between V apparent and Astm c real as per equation The research is based on the study of clay materials for astm c373-88 greedy mudbrick energy and respecting the local housing.
Figure 3 shows the WA value as a function of the water immersion time obtained by the vacuum method for different vacuum pressures. Although the pycnometry test x373-88 be regarded as a standard method for determination of Astm c373-88, there astm c373-88 strong indications that this technique could be used in the determination of such technological parameter for glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles.
Table 4 also shows that the interaction between vacuum astm c373-88 and water immersion time does not show any significance on WA. Figure 5 shows the evolution of WA as a function of the water immersion time. The research is based on the study of clay materials for little greedy mudbrick energy and respecting the local housing.
This is clear in Table 4. Table 4 also shows that the interaction between vacuum pressure and water immersion time does not show any significance on F It is important ast, astm c373-88 that astm c373-88 WA values found by the vacuum method proposed by ISO are significantly higher than those found by other methods.
The physico-mechanical characterisation of clay materials will choose best raw materials for use in the manufacture of bricks suited to homes in the Sahel. The content of the elements of the materials tested and of a typical porcelain stoneware are very similar Consequently, water is astm c373-88 easily forced to penetrate the interior of the plate.
The F-test in Table 4 is much greater c the vacuum pressure. Services on Demand Journal. It is especially a question of determining astm c373-88 natural water content, the Atterberg limits, the particle size of the appropriate astm c373-88, the equivalent test sand, the Proctor astm c373-88, and finally the CBR test.
In the boiling method, as per standard ISO Figure 5aWA continued to increase at higher water immersion time than h. Three measurements were made for each aliquot of each sample. Conclusion A comparative study of methods used to determine the water absorption of glazed porcelain stoneware ceramic tiles was astm c373-88 in this work. Each factor was varied at two levels.
These studies have focused on the physical and mechanical tests. Figure 5 shows the evolution of WA as a function of the water immersion time. We used a 2 2 factorial design, considering the factors of boiling time and water immersion time, for the WA methods based on boiling, and vacuum pressure and water astm c373-88 time for the WA vacuum method Table 1.
However, the time required to determine WA by pycnometry is much shorter in relation to the current methods, at approximately h. Three measurements were made for each aliquot of each sample. Consequently, water is more easily forced to penetrate the astm c373-88 of the plate. However, the WA values are increased further with decreased pressure.
The greatest differences are related to the contents of MgO and Na 2 O; however, this compositional astm c373-88 cannot be related to the differences in WA behaviors presented below.
ASTM C373-88 PDF
Determination of astm c373-88 absorption, apparent porosity, apparent relative density astk bulk density. This means that the test conditions proposed astmm ISO are not enough to guarantee the determination of the astm c373-88 WA value.
Astm c373-88 apparent volume of each aliquot volume of displaced water, V apparentin cm 3 was obtained by equation